You most often see the cellular towers around your home but you think why they are too big in size? What’s the reason behind this? In this article, you will get your answer so have a quick view below
What is a cell tower?
A cell tower is a device where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed to create a communication with our cellular phones. This tower giving access to the user in terms of mobile data, radio, cellular communication. This carries out by devices that are transmitter, receiver, control system, back up power source. These all equipment do their particular task which we will discuss below.
Transmitter: It is a device which is used to transmit an electromagnetic signal carrying messages and information.
Receiver: It is a device which is used to receive these electromagnetic signal send by the transmitter and convert it into the desired form.
Back up power source: If in any case there is no reachability of electricity then it has a storage of approximately 5 days to work for. This power source has electric batteries or solar power panels.
How These Towers Work? What is the need of these equipment mounted on it?
The electromagnetic signal is the main factor of this system because it carries our message in form of waves or signal. Our mobile phone transmit this electromagnetic signal when we make a call by a transmitter which is also mounted inside our cell phones.This electromagnetic wave is also known as radio frequency or RF energy. Now the Cell tower has both devices that is transmitter and receiver, so this can transmit or receive signals from mobile phones. After receiving the radio waves from a mobile phone, it will then transmit the signals to center, this passes the signal and allow cellular call to be connected. A different slot is given to every call to avoid congestion.
Why the tower size is too big from our buildings?
- Multiple Wavelength– Cellular Antennas mounted on the tower do a job of receiving and transmission of signals. These large antennas build up with multiples of the wavelength because of high signal gain and also high signal strength. On the other hand, our cellular phone antenna is built with one or two wavelengths that’s why it has weak signals comparatively. The cellular tower has the power to receive our weak cellular signals because its signal power is much greater than mobile phones. This is the reason for building tower big in size because of high power its high power gain.
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- Line of sight Propagation– Due to ‘line of sight propagation’ of signals, the size of cellular towers builds far big than our buildings. If we make it small then due to walls, hills and other structures, the signal strength attenuates. It becomes weak. The cellular towers build big so that there can be a’ line of sight propagation’ between any cellular phone and cellular tower.
- Overlapping- You don’t want the power to overlap another tower’s coverage area, because they all share the same frequencies and not only is that power wasted, it causes interference. The only practical way to focus the power between two small angles vertically is to have the antenna be many wavelengths across in the vertical direction, with a carefully adjusted curvature or phase shift across the long dimension.
These all things are the reasons behind the big size of towers. The frequency of radio frequency signals transmitted by the cellphones is 800- to 2400-megahertz. The range of cell tower decided by the absorption and reflection of radio energy by buildings or vegetation, the local geographical or regulatory factors and weather conditions and The frequency of the signal in use.