In the most simple terms, a water hand pump is a mechanical device or a pump which uses manual human power to lift water from a well. These are the most basic types of pumps in use since time immemorial and are in use till date. Its still a very common sight in rural India.
Hand Pumps are really a boon to mankind. They provide a cost-efficient water pumping solution to remote areas. There are many kinds of water hand pump in use and most of them have a similarity in design and principal. The essential component of hand pumps are Handle, The pump rod, Piston, Piston Valve, Raising main, suction lift and the water outlet.
There are many configurations to the hand pump and it generally varies with depth at which the water is available to be pumped to the surface.
The most common type of pumps in use are the positive displacement hand pumps. Positive displacement pumps are armed with reciprocating plungers or pistons. The pistons are fitted with non-return values and sliders inside a cylindrical tube. This piston is connected to the pump handle which when used results in up and down motion of the piston. When the piston comes up it creates a vacuum resulting in the water being sucked in to the cylinder and is drained through the outlet pipe.