A power plant is a place where we produce electric power which is used for domestic and industrial purposes by using turbines.Now thermal power plant is a place where we produce electric power using steam produced from water.The thermal power plant works on Rankineconsists of Boiler, Nozzle, Turbine, Condensor,
boiler the water is converted into steam by heating the water at constant pressure. After this, the steam is sent to the nozzle, the pressure of steam is reduced by increasing the velocity of steam.Now the high-velocity steam is sent to the turbine.The steam strikes the turbine so that the rotor rotates by this work is developed.
A major part of developed work is used to run the generator. By this electric power is produced. Then steam is sent into the condenser where steam is converted into the water at constant pressure. Then the water is sent to pump. The water is pumped into a boiler and the cycle repeats.
The pump is run by work developed in a turbine.Thermal power plants are power stations which convert heat energy into electric energy. The thermal power plant is a collective term which includes fossil fuels, geothermal, solar and nuclear power plants as well as waste incineration plants.
Main components Thermal Power Plant-
- switch yard
The basic working mechanism is-
- Use the heat energy to boil water, producing steams
- The steam turbine spins and then drives the electric generator
- Condense the steam into water for reusing
- Repeat the cycle
This cycle is known as the Rankine cycle:
THERMAL POWER PLANT(TPP) works on energy conversation.Let us consider coal base TPP. In coal base TPP, coal is used as raw material to produce heat in the boiler.
All TPP works Modified RANKIN cycle
In boiler, coal is burned to produce heat. This heat is utilized to convert water in steam in a closed vessel, like a pressure cooker in the home.The boiler is a closed container with hues structure to pressurize the steam. (here the chemical is converted into heat energy)
This steam is passed through the pipe near the turbine.We make the steam pass through turbine blades and thus the turbine rotates.(here heat energy is converted into mechanical energy).
The turbine shaft is coupled with the generator.The shaft also rotates as the turbine rotates. Here mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
The electricity which we produced is connected to the grid to pass on for the use in houses, industries etc.
The steam which is passed through the turbine is condensed into water by cooling it. This condensed steam (water) is again pumped the n boiler with help of heavy pump.
As suggested by Adnan Aslam, there are other working mechanisms used in thermal power plants—open cycle, combined cycle and co-generation.
1. Open cycle-
- Fresh air is compressed in the compressor
- Compressed air and fuel are burnt in the combustion chamber
- Hot gas is expelled and the turbine spins
2. Combined cycle
- Run the open cycle
- Pipes with running water is heated by exhaust gas
- The water vapour turns the steam turbine and then condenses at the condenser
- The water is recycled and the cycle is repeated
- Run the close cycle
- Provide the waste heat to different warming appliances