The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon surveying measurements.Moreover, during execution, project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points established by surveying.Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil Engineering projects.

surveying

In other words, Surveying is the technique of determining the relative position of different features on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements and finally representing them on a sheet of paper known as plan or map.

Principles of Surveying

-The fundamental principles upon which the surveying is being carried out are

-Working from whole to part.

-After deciding the position of any point, its reference must be kept from at least two permanent objects or stations whose position have already been well defined.

The purpose of working from whole to part is

-To localise the errors and

-To control the accumulation of errors