The Submarine cables play a consequential role under the sea and ocean to transfer energy and communicate signals around the world. These cables connect the different stations to carry all the telephonic and communication traffic.
Construction of the Submarine Cables-
The submarine cables and underground cables are mostly similar in construction. The major difference between these cables is that Submarine cables can work in the unfavorable atmospheric conditions and submarine cable are strong enough to withstand hazardous conditions under the sea or ocean.
Let’s check out the basic elements of submarine cables below:
- Outer View of cable: The outside layer of the Submarine cables consists of an extruded polymer or spiral overlay of wires. The outer layer of the polymer protects the Armour in the cable.
- Isolation System: The isolation system protects the conductor of the cable from outside atmosphere.
- Conductor: Manufacturers use cable copper or aluminum to make the conductor due to their better conductive properties.
- Watertight Sleeve: This sleeve constitutes lead, aluminum, and copper which protects the isolation system and conductor from the water.
- Semi-Conductive layers: This layer serves the purpose to create a dielectric surface between isolator and conductor.
Characteristics of Submarine Cables:
The cables solve the purpose of underwater working. The cable manufacturers have to follow the IEC standard 60288 in order to make them stable against marine animals, tsunamis or by fishermen trawls.
- These wires can withstand any temperature on land as well as seabed
- Submarine wires should have no effect on the depth of sea or ocean
- For its use in deep water, the submarine cables compile with the special protection layer.
- The submarine cables are highly thermal resistive of seabed and land
Joints and laying procedure of Submarine cables:
The testing of the cable joint is necessary before executing them under the high pressure of the sea. The joints have to pass all the insulation, dielectric and radiographic test before using the cable which gets too old or damaged.
The procedure of laying the Submarine cables is a tough laborious job and it depends on different parameters of the project. But still it can be done with the help of following steps:
- There are preliminary checks of cables on various stages while loading.
- Putting the first end of the submarine cable in the sea or ocean will be the next step after all checks.
- The next steps are to laying a cable between two terminals i.e. on and under the seabed
- At the end land the other terminal of the cable.