Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, with carbon content up to a maximum of 1.5%. Most of the steel produced nowadays is plain carbon steel or simply carbon steel. It is divided into the following types depending upon the carbon content:

  1. Dead mild steel — upto 0.15% Carbon
  2.  Low carbon or mild steel — 0.15% to 0.45% Carbon
  3. Medium carbon steel — 0.45% to 0.8% Carbon
  4. High carbon steel — 0.8% to 1.5% Carbon

Our cities stand on the basic foundation of steel, without which they would instantly collapse. How is this outstanding alloy made? Here we will discuss the various methods normally employed during the steel manufacturing process.

Steel is basically up of an alloy of carbon and iron, where the presence of carbon may vary from 0.25% to 1.5% and hence steel is primarily classified as low carbon steel (around 0.25% carbon), medium carbon steel (between 0.25% to 0.75% carbon) and high carbon steel (0.75% to 1.5% carbon).

Steel may be manufactured through the following principle methods:

  • Cementation Process
  • Crucible Process
  • Bessemer Process
  •  Open-hearth Process
  • Electric Process
  • Duplex process
  •  L-D Process

Let’s look at these one by one-