The laminated or leaf spring (also known as flat spring or carriage spring) consists of a number of flat plates (known as leaves) of varying lengths held together by means of clamps and bolts, as shown in Fig. These are mostly used in automobiles.
The major stresses produced in leaf springs are tensile and compressive stresses.
Disc or bellevile springs-
These springs consist of a number of conical discs held together against slipping by a central bolt or tube as shown in Fig. These springs are used in applications where high spring rates and compact spring units are required.
Special purpose springs-
These springs are air or liquid springs, rubber springs, ring springs etc. The fluids (air or liquid) can behave as a compression spring. These springs are used for special types of application only.