The principal of a solar cell is comparable to conduction in a semiconductor like silicon. the dark surface is the part that is subjected to sunlight. When EM radiation strikes the surface of the cell, it excites the electrons and causes them to jump from one orbit to another hence leaving empty holes behind. These holes now become the harbinger of positive charge whereas the excited electrons act as the negative charge. Hence converting EM energy into electricity.
Making of a simple solar cell!
Silicon and selenium will be the most widely used semiconductors when you look at the production of solar cells. Gallium, arsenide, indium arsenide and cadmium sulfide etc.are the other elements which can be used to make solar cells but silicon and selenium are the ones which are popularly used.
Realizing that semiconductor materials like silicon and selenium can be very expensive, hence we’ll only take in to account how to exactly construct a solar cell using materials like silicon as well as how we can construct a solar cell using cheap materials that may be available around us. Keep in mind that using cheap materials will likely not give an output of equal to when compared with silicon or selenium been used for solar cells, and secondly, the bigger the surface area of the material that would be subjected to EM radiation, greater the amount of energy will be produced.