The laser is Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, And Laser beam machining is a non-traditional way of manufacturing. In fact, it’s a subtractive manufacturing process in which a laser beam is used for cutting through the metals and other materials for getting the desired product. The process of laser beam machining uses the thermal energy of the laser to cut, heat and vaporize the materials in use or in question.
This process finds its best application in carving out things from brittle materials with low conductivity. High-frequency monochromatic laser beams can work very well with brittle materials as they do not produce much vibration.
Here, It becomes vital to discuss various types of lasers that can be used for laser beam machining. Although lasers are of many types. But the most commonly used ones are the gas type, solid state lasers, and excimer lasers.
In Gas Lasers, electricity is passed through gas ensuring that a constant beam of monochromatic high energy light is produced. They also produce a consistent beam of light. Most commonly He-Ne & CO2 are the preferred gases used for producing the laser beam for machining purpose.
Solid state lasers use doping a metal into many host materials. Unlike gas lasers, solid-state lasers are pumped optically with help of an arc lamp. Ruby is one of the elements used for solid-state lasers. The ruby laser produces deep red light pulses of millisecond pulse length and a wavelength of about 695 nm. Ruby laser is pumped by a xenon flash tube before its actual use. Another type of solid state laser is the YAG laser. Yag lasers have neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystals as a laser medium. it produces beams of very high energy.