Hydraulic hammer works on the principle of hydraulics by Blaise Pascal which states that “applying pressure on one part of a fluid transfers that pressure to all areas of the fluid, allowing for a multiplication of force”. Since the oil used is incompressible, it allows the transfer of power instantly with negligible loss.
The hydraulic hammer starts with its main valve in the cylinder. The hydraulic oil is supplied to hammer through this valve. When upward stroke takes place, the pressure in the upper chamber is released by the main valve and through the outlet. Then the high pressure in the lower chamber pushes the piston upwards.
As the piston reaches the upper end of the stroke, the main valve directs the flow to upper chambers that make it high-pressure chamber. This causes the piston to move downward because of accumulated energy from the gas chamber, hence creating the impact stroke cycle. The energy is transferred to the tool that uses it to do various tasks.
At the point of impact, the main valve shifts and the pressure from upper chamber is released, enabling the upper stroke to take place.
Most of the hydraulic hammers come with fully enclosed housing over their parts not only to protect them from other materials but to ensure that they last longer. To increase the safety of equipment on which the hydraulic hammer is attached, the models comprise of shock absorbers at the top that absorbs all the impact and recoil energies. Moreover, the shock absorber also helps to protect the parts of the hydraulic hammer. Some of the hydraulic hammers are equipped with steel bushing in their bottom that isolates them from vibration.
Hydraulic hammers are environment-friendly because they produce less noise and pollutants. They are preferred in the places that are sensitive to vibration and noise, as a vibratory hammer may damage the existing structures.