Foundation is the lowermost structure in any building, it will transfer the load from superstructure to the soil (substructure).There would have been no need of foundation if the soil is good in shear. The column would have been sufficient. But column punches ( settles or goes inside soil) because of a small perimeter.So, the foundation is provided just to increase perimeter so that load is distributed over a large area.
In other words, Foundation is the lowest part of the building or the civil structure that is in direct contact with the soil which transfers loads from the structure to the soil safely.
Building Foundation In Construction
Types of Foundation
- Shallows Foundations
- Deep Foundations
1- Shallows Foundations-
Shallow foundations are those founded near to the finished ground surface; generally where the founding depth (Df) is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m. These are not strict rules, but merely guidelines: basically, if surface loading or other surface conditions will affect the bearing capacity of a foundation it is ‘shallow’.
Shallows foundations are used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads; they are generally unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils, such as poorly-compacted fill, peat, recent lacustrine and alluvial deposits, etc.