The differential gear can be said as the landmark in the automotive industry. Without its presence, the vehicles may be fine on straight roads but face difficulty while turning. The left and the right wheel of the cars rotate at the same speed in straight roads than in corners.
Therefore, the differential is a type of gear train inclusive of three shafts and has the property that the angular velocity of the single shaft is the average of the others.
While turning at the corners, the inside wheel takes the shorter route while rotating around a tight radius. Here it requires being slow down relative to rotating on the straight road. On another hand, the outside wheel travels a longer route and it needs to travel quickly to cover the longer distance.
The differential gear help to maintain this speed difference. It allows the wheels to turn at different speed in the different direction of curves. Without the presence of differential, the car will skid badly and lead to accidents. Also, the wheels can get locked and no difference in the speeds is possible.
watch video on next page to understand the working of differential gears-