A condenser is a heat exchanging device in which substances condense. They lose heat and turn into the liquid from the gaseous state.
In Air Conditioner there is an ODU(outdoor unit) in which evaporated refrigerant flows and loses heat to the atmosphere and thus changes its state from vapour to liquid.
Also in steam powerplant vapour condense into liquid in condenser after it’s expansion in the turbine.
The condenser is an important component of any refrigeration system. In a typical refrigerant condenser, the refrigerant enters the condenser in a superheated state. It is first de-superheated and then condensed by rejecting heat to an external medium. The refrigerant may leave the condenser as a saturated or a sub-cooled liquid, depending upon the temperature of the external medium and design of the condenser.
Function Of A Condensor-
The purpose of a condenser in the cycle of compression refrigeration is to change the hot gas being discharged from the compressor to a liquid preparation for use in the evaporator. The condenser accomplishes this action by the removal of sufficient heat from the hot gas, to ensure its condensation at the pressure available in the condenser. The heat is shifted to another medium, like water or air, to cool the condenser.
The steam leaving the turbine is near to saturated vapour curve and the volume of steam is very large. If the condenser is not used then we have to compress this steam up to boiler pressure for which a large size of compressor is required and thus the compressor work will also be more and in practical condition it will be more than turbine work due to irreversible losses and thus there is no work output from the power plant.
Now if the condenser is used than the state of fluid leaving the condenser will be saturated liquid state and the volume of liquid is very small compared to vapour, so a small size pump is required to compress this liquid up to boiler pressure and also the work input will be small, so the network output from the power plant will be very large and the efficiency of power plant will be more for same energy input.
Working Of Condensor-
Condenser, as the name suggests, condenses the refrigerant vapour to liquid refrigerant. It is a heat exchanger and rejects heat to the environment(the room in case of domestic refrigerators). The refrigerant undergoes a phase change process and hence both pressure and temperature remain constant before and after condensation.So, a condenser converts a high-pressure high-temperature refrigerant vapour to a high-pressure high-temperature liquid refrigerant.A condenser is generally coil-shaped to increase the surface area to facilitate heat transfer.
The compressor compresses the hot gas back into a liquid and removes it through the condenser coil. Hense the term condenser coil. It changes the gas back to a liquid where it is pumped to the evaporator coil and released through an expansion valve to flash it back to a cold gas to pick up the eat from the evaporator coil and then it starts all over.