A capacitor is a two-terminal passive component used in electronic circuits. The basic construction consists of two plates of a conductor and a dielectric insulator between them. In practice the plate is often conductive foil with a plastic insulator all rolled up, or a ceramic insulator between multiple interleaved conductors.
It is a terminal conductor with twin phases and separated by an insulator. They store the electric charge from the power source like a battery and are unable to produce them. One terminal store the positive and the other terminal stores the negative charge. It performs the process of charging and discharging within a circuit. When they store the current (electrons), it is charging and when they discharge the current it is discharging. The capacity to store the electrical current is known as capacitance and its unit of measurement is Farad.
Construction of a capacitor
There are various types of capacitors but they follow the same constructional design. It basically consists of two electrically conductive plates which are separated from each other. The materials for these plates are brass, copper or aluminum. The empty space consists of the non-conductive material and is known as a dielectric region. The dielectric region is made up of the materials such as waxed paper, ceramic or mica. But, the electrically conductive plates are good conductors in nature. They easily hold the electric charge and supply the energy when most required.