A battery, in general, has an electrolyte solution in between its two terminals. This electrolyte is a chemical solution through which electrons flow from one terminal to another and in turn, generate power. The electrolyte solution reacts with metals and separates them into their constituent ions.
One terminal is an anode and it has a majority of negatively charged ions or metallic ions and is excess of electrons. The other terminal is cathode which comprises of positively charged ions or metallic ions and lacks in electrons.
The electrolyte solution oxidizes the cathode which forces it to lose electrons. These electrons travel through the circuit and in turn reduce the anode. This is called a redox reaction. This system continues to work till no reactants are left to undergo a redox reaction. At this point, the dead batteries can no longer work. To make it work again the chemical energy of the battery is refilled through an external source. After knowing the basic working principle of a battery, let’s have a deeper insight of a battery.