The temperature of gases rises under adiabatic compression which is called adiabatic heating. However, in the expansion through adiabatic process against a pressure or a spring, the system causes a loss in temperature through a process called adiabatic cooling.
Adiabatic heating occurs when there is work done by the surroundings to pressurize the gas. This work done can be compared to a piston compression in a diesel engine cylinder. Moreover, the adiabatic heating can also occur naturally when the air mass is pressed down on the slope of a mountainous terrain, thereby increasing the temperature of the air because of work done on the air mass to decrease its volume against the land mass.
Adiabatic cooling occurs when the expansion takes place in an isolated system, rendering them to work in their surroundings. For example: when the air is depressurized by the lift in a wind current its volume gets spread out, thus reducing the temperature.
Adiabatic process and timescales-